Agriculture is one of the main branches of the material production in the republic. Today it is represented by 70 small and medium agricultural enterprises and 1121 farm enterprises. The agricultural area makes 1656.2 thousand hectares, including 1085.5 thousand hectares of arable land.

The republic has 3 natural economic areas. Soils in the republic are diverse. Combination of leached and podzoled black fertile soils with complex of grey forest soils is typical. The total area of arable lands is made up of black fertile soils (44.3%), forest soils (45.2%), soddy-podzolic soils (5.4%).
Livestock number in all enterprises on January 1 st 2016 made up: 231.7 thousand heads of cattle (including 82.2 thousand cows), 314.8 thousand pigs, 42.5 thousand sheep and goats. The main breeds of cattle are Simmental, Red-and- Parti-colored, Black-and-Parti-colored; pigs Large White, Landrace, Duroc.


Cattle and poultry productivity in 2015 is as follows: the average milk-yield from one cow is 5271 kg., the average egg production of laying hens is 311 pcs. Production volume of main agricultural products in all types of enterprises has made: grain (in weight after processing) 1039.6 thousand tons, sugar-beet 908.7 thousand tons, potatoes 327.5 thousand tons, cattle and poultry (in live weight) 249.1 thousand tons, milk 404.3 thousand tons, eggs 1422.5 million pcs. Stock of machines and tractors of agricultural enterprises is represented by modern multipurpose machinery 2749 tractors, 886 grain combine harvesters, 1917 load vehicles (estimated), 240 forage harvesters.
There are 17.7 thousand people engaged in agriculture. The food industry production volume in 2015 made more than 54 billion rubles. The branch structure of food industry in the republic is as follows: meat 35%, dairy 20%, brewing and non-alcoholic beverages 10.4%, sugar 7.7%, alcohol and distilling 2.6%, confectionery 4.0%, milling 0.6%. Food industry includes 5 meat-processing plants, 18 milkplants, 1 confectionery plant, 2 alcohol and distillery companies, sugar plant, cannery plant, alimentary products plant, flour milling, grain-collecting companies, etc.


Agrarian science of the republic is presented with agrarian institute of MorSU named after N.P.Ogarev, Institute of mechanics and energy production of MorSU named after N.P.Ogarev, Mordovian agriculture research institute, Mordovian institute of refresher courses for agrarian business, 5 specialized secondary educational state institutions (Kemlya and Krasnoslobodsk agrarian colleges, Temnikov agriculture and Kovilkino construction college, Torbeyevo college of meet and dairy industry), 6 agrarian colleges (Insar, Zubova Polyana, Dubyonki, Atyashevo, Ardatov, Romodanovo).


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